Scrum和Sprint名词的历史和误区

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2019年7月29日
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2019年8月29日
scrum-rugby

Rugby(英式橄榄球)运动是1845年开始的。Scrum方法创始人们是读了1986年HBR论文《The New New Product Development Game》而受到了Rugby运动的启发,并在1995年发布论文,正式提出Scrum方法。论文链接见:http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.86.4164 或 http://jeffsutherland.com/oopsla/schwapub.pdf

Scrum是Agile敏捷开发方法的一个流派,Sprint一词(英文原意是Rugby运动中的短距离冲刺)是1995年Scrum一词(英文原意是Rugby运动中的争球)创立者为了区别于其他增量迭代式开发(IID)方法(例如 XP极限编程方法),而从Rugby运动借来的比喻,意为一个短的时间盒,期望每个时间盒末尾能有潜在可交付的产品增量以供反馈和调整。

如今敏捷行业,Iteration和Sprint几乎混在一起使用了,甚至包括一些新兴的精益产品创新方法如谷歌的Design Sprint一词也效仿设计了5天的固定时间盒。

在中文世界,“迭代”一词有着不同的理解,有人理解为产品升级换代之意,也有人理解为一次产品的发版。所以在敏捷上下文中,特别是Scrum中,我们倾向于不翻译Sprint这个词,而像Scrum一样保留使用英文单词。

(作者:申导,转载请注明出处 http://www.uperform.cn/history-of-scrum-sprint/)

附录:Scrum简史

  • 1996
    • Sutherland goes to Individual as VP of Engineering. Ken, as consultant, work together to bring up  Scrum 
    • Sutherland goes to IDX as SVP of Engineering/CTO. Ken helps bring up Scrum in many divisions.  Scalability of Scrum demonstrated.
  • 1999 
    • Mike Beedle leads team effort to publish Scrum Pattern in Pattern Languages of Programming  Design, Volume 4. 
  • 2000 
    • Sutherland goes to PatientKeeper as CTO. Ken works with him to bring up Scrum at  PatientKeeper. Sutherland evolves Type C Scrum.
  • 2001
    • Agile Manifesto meeting: Ken, Jeff, and Mike Beedle represent Scrum as signatories. 
    • Agile Alliance formed, Ken writes first book on Scrum and starts Certification Course in 2003. 
  • 1990
    • Sutherland leads Guiness Peat Aviation IT innovations in Ireland. Project Leader/Gantt Chart problems  identified. This lead to abandonment of Gantt Charts in Scrum.  Also turns traditional project leader into team member and facilitator of self-organizing team.
  • 1989-1993
    • Sutherland runs Object Databases building Matisse Object Database. Lots of pair programming, refactoring, AI, concurrent engineering
    • Sutherland leases space to iRobot startup. Learns subsumption architecture as basis for self-organizing  systems. This feeds into Scrum.
    • Works extensively with Capers Jones, leading productivity author and researcher. For next seven years, Capers  company benchmarks Scrum teams.
    • Sutherland on Advisory Board of Accion, largest microenterprise development non-profit in western  hemisphere. Lots of small team research.
    • Small team formation concepts find their way into what becomes Scrum allowing teams to bootstrap  economic performance.
  • 1993
    • Sutherland goes to Easel CorporaJon as VP Object Technology to lead Object Studio Smalltalk project.   Computer science and productivity research continues on how best to create Scrum.  Takeuchi and Nonaka paper and Jim Coplien’s review of Borland Quattro Pro project were key resources.  Sutherland hires Jeff McKenna as consultant and John Scumniotales as first ScrumMaster. Together they form  first Scrum team. 
  • 1994
    • Easel Object Studio Release 1 (6 Sprints) and Object Studio Release 2 (6 Sprints) using Scrum.
  • 1995
    • Sutherland provides information on Scrum to Kent Beck to help him create XP
    • Easel acquired by VMARK. Jeff invites Ken Schwaber to visit VMARK Object Studio Scrum team.   Ken agrees to promote Scrum in the soUware industry as open source and publishes first Scrum paper at  OOPSLA’95.

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